Breast feeding is clearly superior for baby and mom.
optimization of breast-feeding in the perinatal period.
Clin Perinatol 1998 Jun;25(2):303-26 Neifert MR, University
of Colorado School of Medicine, USA.
scientific evidence documents the diverse health benefits
of successful breast-feeding for infants and mothers.
The trend toward earlier discharge of newborns, however,
has been linked with adverse outcomes in breast-fed
babies, including hypernatremic dehydration and hyperbilirubinemia.
PMID: 9646995, UI: 98310979
factors for development of dehydration in children aged
under five who have acute watery diarrhoea: a case-control
study. Public Health 1998 Jul;112(4):233-6, Zodpey SP,
Deshpande SG, Ughade SN, Hinge AV, Shirikhande SN Department
of Social and Preventive Medicine, Government Medical
College Hospital, Maharashtra State, India.
To identify risk factors for development of dehydration
in under five year olds with acute watery diarrhoea
This study identified the significance of ....cy of
stool > 8/d, frequency of vomiting > 2/d, history
of measles in previous six months, withdrawal of breast
feeding during diarrhoea, withdrawal of fluids during
diarrhoea and not giving ORS, HAF or both during diarrhoea,
in the outcome of development of moderate or severe
Timely intervention in the preventable risk factors
included in this study may prevent the development of
moderate or severe dehydration in the children suffering
form acute watery diarrhoea. PMID: 9724946, UI: 98392158.
in breast-fed infants with persistent diarrhea: risk
factors with death.Arq Gastroenterol 1998 Jan-Mar;35(1):62-8
[Article in Portugese] de Andrade JA, Gomes TA, Fagundes-Neto
U Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal
de Sao Paulo EPM-UNIFESP.
To study persistent diarrhea risk factors, a frequent
disease in developing countries. RESULTS: Sepsis (the
spread of an infection) was considered the most important
cause of death for hospitalized lactents with persistent
diarrhea. PMID: 9711316, UI: 98377175.
of persistent diarrhea in pediatric services in Tunis.
Arch Pediatr 1995 Mar;2(3):227-31 [Article in French]
Khaldi F, Ben Mansour A, Ben Naceur B Service de medecine
infantile A, hopitald'Enfants de Tunis, Tunisie.
Persistent diarrhea (PD) is recognized as a major cause
of morbidity and mortality in the developing world.
69% of the children were breast-fed and 82% were bottle-fed
before 12 months of age.
These results show that, among usual risk factors of
PD bottle- feeding, diet errors and history of acute
diarrhea seem to be particularly frequent in this Tunisian
population. PMID: 7742906, UI: 95261463
FEEDING IS NOT!
Ingestion of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines by infants
and children. Arch Environ Health 1990 Nov;45(6):359-363
, Westin JB, Unit for Environmental and Occupational
Medicine, School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah
Medical School, Jerusalem. Volatile N-nitrosamines are
very potent carcinogens. They can be approximately
5 million times more powerful than saccharin. One of
two principal methods isgenerally used when assaying
rubber products for nitrosamine content: (1) the German
method (aqueous extraction) or (2) the U.S. method dichloromethane
extraction). When 16 types of baby-bottle nipples and
children's pacifiers were tested recently, relatively
high levels of nitramines, nitrosamines, and nitrosatable
precursors were found. Eighty-one percent failed to
meet the strict Dutch standards (based on the German
method), but only 37.5% would have been banned according
to U.S. regulations, which ignore nitrosatable-precursor
content. Up to one-third of the nitrosamines present
in a rubber nipple may migrate into the milk in the
bottle within a few hours. Transfer into infant formula
may exceed 40%, and transfer into saliva may be even
higher. Thus, a highly contaminated nipple may cause
a 5-kg infant who drinks 1 l/d to ingest approximately
2 micrograms/kg body weight.d of nitrosamines. To this,
add any exposure resulting from pacifier use or from
in vivo nitrosation of precursors.
daily exposure of infants may, in the worst case, conceivably
reach 4-5 micrograms/kg body weight.d. Entire average
daily exposure of an American adult to volatile nitrosamines
from major sources is estimated to be less than 0.05
micrograms/kg body weight.d. Infants who use products
like those tested may, therefore, be exposed daily to
less than or equal to 100 times more of these carcinogens
than are adults. PMID: 2270955, UI: 91103608
you wanna go Hmmmmmmm???????
Dr. David Page
Don't forget the unique benefits to orofacial and airway
development of exclusive breastfeeding---i.e. no bottle
and no pacifier!